Paradigmenwechsel in der Anti-Aging-Medizin: Hormesis, Target-of-Rapamycin-Komplex und erste Anti-Aging-Pillen // Paradigm Shift in Anti-Aging Medicine: Hormesis, Target of Rapamycin Complex and First Human Anti-Aging-Pills
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie 2016; 10 (3) (Ausgabe für Österreich): 10-15
Journal für Gynäkologische Endokrinologie 2016; 10 (3) (Ausgabe für Schweiz): 10-15
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Keywords: Anti-aging, hormesis, Metformin, mTOR-Komplex, rapamycin, Anti-aging, hormesis, Metformin, mTOR complex, rapamycin
Studies in model organisms have shown that some drugs and lifestyle practices (calorie-restricted diets, regular exercise, e.g.) can extend life and health span and protect against the onset of age-related chronic diseases by targeting physiological pathways.
A common mode of action was found via mTOR (mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin) pathway signalling. This intracellular protein kinase complex plays a key role in stimulating anabolic and cell growth promoting processes, while inhibiting autophagy. On the other hand, downregulation results in antiproliferative, anticancer and intensive cell-repairing effects leading to life and health span extension and stress resistance. The mTOR complex regulates such basic cell activities and integrates signals from nutrition sensing, energy metabolism, insulin and growth factors, stress and hypoxia.
Importantly, mTOR can be inhibited by some molecules and their analogs (rapamycin, resveratrol, metformin, e.g.), which are released naturally from plants, yeast or bacteria to protect against natural enemies. Its dosage resembles an adaptive hormetic response relationship, as high concentrations are toxic and mild doses are associated with anticancer and antiaging effects. This opens up new avenues for their use as „anti-aging pills“ in humans.
Recent human data suggest that metformin, rapamycin and other mTOR-inhibitors could delay heart disease, cancer, cognitive decline and improve survival time in people with diabetes mellitus. In addition, response to influenca vaccine was enhanced by rapamycin in adults with immunosenescence, indicating beneficial anti-aging effects in the elderly.
“Treat aging” is an actual call to recognize aging as an indication appropriate for clinical trials and treatments, as it was recently approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) USA.
Kurzfassung: Die ansteigende Morbidität und Invalidität in alternden Industrienationen stößt an die Grenzen der Ressourcen dieser Gesellschaften. Manche Maßnahmen
der Lebensführung (z. B. kalorienreduzierte Ernährung, regelmäßiges Training) verbessern die Altersgesundheit,
dennoch benötigen viele zusätzlich Therapien gegen Krankheiten im Alter. Deren größter Risikofaktor ist „das Altern“ selbst.