„Martial Arts“ in der kardiopulmonalen Primär-/Sekundärprävention und Rehabilitation // Martial Arts in cardiopulmonary primary/secondary prevention and rehabilitation
Journal für Kardiologie - Austrian Journal of Cardiology 2018; 25 (3-4): 70-76
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Keywords: Herz-Judo, Herz-Reha Phase IV, Hypertonie, Qigong, Sportkardiologie, Tai Chi Chuan
Martial Arts (MA) are mostly complex systems that involve both psychomotricity and cultural traditions. Although western approaches tend to discern between meditative movement for health, competitive sports, and ethnic rites, many martial arts have to be regarded as holistic entities that comprise medical features, physical exercises, and mystical perspectives.
Cardiologic studies on martial arts mainly explore the Chinese disciplines of Tai Chi Chuan 太 极拳 and Qigong 气功 and speak about costeffective and safe ways of treatment. These approaches are applied to reduce hypertension and high heart rate and might have positive effects on endothelial function and heart rate variability. Nevertheless, there is yet no consent about their levels of evidence today.
Moreover, Tai Chi Chuan and Qigong showed preventative and therapeutic effects on anxiety and depression, hence their function of controlling psychopathological sequelae of heart conditions. A wealth of studies highlights that these martial arts also improve the patients’ quality of life and enhance their adherence to rehabilitation programmes.
For some years, Karate and Judo have gained ground in cardiology, too. Karate is used to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and to promote cardiovascular health, and a novel form of Cardio- Judo has been designed for long-term cardiac rehabilitation. This model conforms with the relevant guidelines of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation and can be tailored to the patient’s physical conditions.
From the perspective of cross-cultural research in medicine, more studies on the martial arts that involve both western and Chinese theories of cardiology are required. This also applies to martial arts from other cultural areas such as the Capoeira from Brazil.
Kurzfassung: Der Begriff „Martial Arts“ wird üblicher
Weise mit „Kampfkünste“ übersetzt. Dabei
handelt es sich meist um komplexe psychomotorische
Systeme mit kulturspezifischer Tradition.
Obwohl man aus westlicher Sicht oft in meditative
Heilbewegungen, wettkampfmäßig betriebenen
Kampfsport und ethnologische Riten trennt,
sind viele von ihnen ganzheitlich zu verstehen
und haben medizinische, sportliche und mystische