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Xu S, Heimberger AB  
Emerging Immune Therapeutics Targeting Glioblastoma-Mediated Immune Suppression: Dark Before the Dawn

European Association of NeuroOncology Magazine 2013; 3 (1): 15-22

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Figure 1: Schema demonstrating immune activation and the role of immune suppression and checkpoints. Glioblastoma exerts profound immunosuppressive effects via multiple, redundant mechanisms, including the TGF-β/VEGF signalling pathway, IL-2Rα/CD25-mediated IL- 2 deprivation, CTLA-4/PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint interaction, STAT3 activation, as well as by IDO/Arg-1 enzymatic suppression. All of these mechanisms have been investigated as potential therapeutic targets for glioblastoma treatment in various clinical and preclinical trials.

Keywords: glioblastomascheme
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