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Borchard U  
The Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Cardiovascular Disease

Journal of Clinical and Basic Cardiology 2001; 4 (3): 175-177

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Framingham - Herzfrequenz
Figure 1: Increase in heart rate is correlated to mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease or all causes (modified according to [2])

Keywords: DiagrammFramingham-StudieFramingham-Studieheart rateHerzfrequenzStudiestudy
SNS-Überaktivität - kardiovaskuläre Erkrankung
Figure 2: Sustained SNS overactivity induces functional and structural changes of different organs leading to cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseasekardiovaskuläre ErkrankungSchemasympathetic nervous systemSympathikussympathisches NervensystemÜberaktivität
SNS-Überaktivität - Hypertrophie
Figure 3: From hypertension to heart failure: SNS overactivity leads to an increase in growth factors responsible for left ventricular hypertrophy, media hypertrophy (coronary microvessels) and fibrosis. The result may be heart failure.

Keywords: HypertrophieHypertrophyoveractivitySchemasympathetic nervous systemSympathikussympathisches NervensystemventricleVentrikelÜberaktivität
SNS-Überaktivität - Metabolismus
Figure 4: Metabolic changes due to elevated sympathetic tone: SNS overactivity leads to increased glucose production, decreased glucose utilization, increase in triglycerides and VLDL, decrease in HDL and insulin resistance (metabolic syndrome).

Keywords: CholesterincholesterolHDLHDLinsulin resistanceInsulinresistenzmetabolismMetabolismusoveractivitySchemasympathetic nervous systemSympathikussympathisches NervensystemtriglycerideTriglyzerideVLDLVLDLÜberaktivität
Moxonidin - Imidazolinrezeptor
Figure 5: Moxonidine selectively stimulates I1-receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The sympathetic outflow from the RVLM to the periphery is decreased.

Keywords: ImidazolinImidazolineMedullaMedullaMoxonidinmoxonidineReceptorRezeptorSchemaStimulationStimulation
Figure 6: There is a strong correlation between the affinity of different I1-agonists at the I1-receptor in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and the oral dose needed to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. There is no such correlation for Ki at a2-receptors (modified according to [15])

Keywords: AntagonistAntagonistblood pressureBlutdruckClonidinDiagrammhypertensionHypertonieImidazolinImidazolineLofexidinMedullaMedullaMoxonidinReceptorRezeptorRilmenidin
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