|Thompson B, Khan S|
Aging Men and Prostate Cancer
Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie - Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Endocrinology 2015; 12 (4): 396-398
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Keywords: cancer treatment, elderly men, prevention and management, prostate cancer
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men worldwide and its incidence increases with age, mainly affecting elderly men aged 60 and above. Factors known to be associated with the development and progression of PCa are age, family history, and race/ethnicity, with age being the most important factor. The reasons for the increased incidence and mortality due to prostate cancer in elderly men are not entirely clear. Continued exposure to environmental and dietary factors may lead to accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes over the life-span, leading to altered expression and/or activity of tumor promoter and tumor suppressor genes. Changing levels of endogenous hormones (like androgens) and metabolism in elderly men may also play a role in the development of prostate cancers which may be further influenced by testosterone replacement therapy. For many decades now preventative strategies and treatments such as radiation therapy or hormone therapy, and others have been administered to manage PCa; however current studies and evidence suggest that PCa is undertreated in elderly men, despite evidence of efficacy of these treatments, which leads to higher prevalence of mortality in this age group. Studies involving basic research, preventative and management strategies are still underway to understand the mechanisms of PCa development in elderly men and treatment of this disease in ageing male population.