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Mammalian Cloning and its Discussion on Applications in Medicine

Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie - Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Endocrinology 2007; 4 (1): 6-16

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Abbildung
 
Mammalian embryos
Abbildung 1: Biotechnology on mammalian embryos at various stages of preimplantation development with multiple applications in reproductive and therapeutic medicine.


Keywords: AndrologieEmbryoEmbryologieGenetikmammalian embryoSchemascheme
 
 
Soamtic cell nuclear transfer
Abbildung 2: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for establishing embryonic stem (ES) cells in therapeutic medicine.


Keywords: AndrologieEmbryologieGenetikSchemaschemeSCNTsomatic cell nuclear transfersomatischer Zellkerntransfer
 
 
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
Abbildung 3: Interspecies SCNT. (A) Enucleation of bovine oocyte at metaphase II; (B) Selection of adult human donor cell; (C) Injection of adult human donor cell into the perivitelline space. (D) Human donor cell attached to the enucleated bovine oocyte.


Keywords: AndrologieEmbryologieGenetikSCNTsoamtischer Zellkern-Transfersomatic cell nuclear transfer
 
 
Interspecies-SCNT
Abbildung 4: Interspecies-SCNT preimplantation embryos derived from human granulosa cells fused with enucleated bovine oocytes. Cleavage embryos (A) and blastocysts (C) derived from SCNT. Parthenogenetically developed cleavage embryos (B) and hatching blastocysts (D) as controls.


Keywords: AndrologieEmbryologieGenetikSCNTsomatic cell nuclear transfersomatischer Zellkerntransfer
 
 
DNA sequence analysis
Abbildung 5a-b: Human genomic DNA sequence analysis of interspecies-cloned embryo and human adult fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT. Identical DNA sequence profiles concerning peak positions are detectable for interspecies embryo (A) and human donor cells (B). Some variations in peak levels result from different sample analysis. Three chromosomal microsatellite probes were used for PCR amplification. FGA (chromosome 4q28), D21S11 (chromosome 21), D13S317 (chromosome 13q22–31). A standard marker (ABI Applied Biosystem ROX Reference Dye) served as internal control. For further details see [78].


Keywords: Andrologiecell donorDNADNA-sequence analysisEmbryoEmbryologieGenetikinterspecies-cloned embryoKlon
 
 
DNA sequence analysis
Abbildung 6a-c: DNA sequence analysis of human and bovine mitochondrial (mt) DNA. From human donor cells and interspeciescloned embryo (blastocyst). For detection of human and bovine mtDNA, species-specific primers were used that amplify parts of the mtD-loop region, respectively. The amplicons were sequenced using internal primers and products separated on an ABI3100. (A) Human mtD-loop region (position 16191- 16239; GeneBank acc. no. AY275537) that was amplified from the human donor cells. (B) Human mtD-loop region obtained from interspecies-cloned embryo. Both mtDNA sequences show identical profiles. (C) Bovine mtDNA sequence from interspeciescloned embryo obtained by using bovine mtDNA primers for PCR amplification of mtD-loop region (position 306 to 359; GeneBank acc. no. AF499248). For further details see [78].


Keywords: Andrologiebovine embryoDNADNA-sequence analysisEmbryoEmbryologieGenetikhuman embryo
 
 
Splitting - Early Embryo
Abbildung 7: Splitting of early embryos (twinning) for various applications in reproductive and therapeutic medicine.


Keywords: AndrologieEmbryoembryo splittingEmbryologieGenetikSchemascheme
 
 
Mouse donor embryo
Abbildung 8: Blastomere biopsy from 2-cell and 4-cell mouse donor embryos (A and C) and blastomere reinjection into empty zona pellucida recipients (B and D).


Keywords: AndrologiebalstomereBiopsiebiopsyBlastomEmbryoEmbryologieGenetik
 
 
Blastocysts - Mouse embryo
Abbildung 9: Hatching blastocysts derived from mouse embryo splitting at the 2-cell (A and B) and 4-cell (C and D) stage. Donor blastocysts on the left and recipient blastocysts on the right.


Keywords: AndrologieblastozystBlastozysteEmbryoEmbryoEmbryologieGenetik
 
 
 
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