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Figures and Graphics
Grossman R, Ram Z  
Awake Craniotomy in Glioma Surgery

European Association of NeuroOncology Magazine 2014; 4 (1): 27-33

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Awake Craniotomy
Figure 1: Intra-operative photographs of the surgical team during awake craniotomy.

Keywords: awake craniotomyglioma surgeryphotograph
Awake Craniotomy
Figure 2A-B: (A) Pre-operative axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery- (FLAIR-) weighted MRI showing a WHO grade-II insular glioma in a 40-year-old woman presenting with episodes of seizures. This patient has no neurological deficit. (B) Intra-operative cortical mapping of language during awake surgery.

Keywords: awake craniotomycortical mappingMRIphotograph
Awake Craniotomy
Figure 3A-C: (A) Preoperative T1-weighted axial after gadolinium injection with diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) of the cortico-spinal tract showing a left temporo-parietal high-grade glioma displace medially the corticospinal tract. (B) Direct cortical stimulation by using bipolar probe. (C) A cortical strip electrode is placed over the surface of the motor cortex in order to assess motor-evoked potential (MEP).

Keywords: awake craniotomycortical stimulationglioma surgeryMRIphotograph
Awake Craniotomy
Figure 4: Sub-cortical stimulation of the cortico-spinal tracts by means of a subcortical monopolar electrode.

Keywords: awake craniotomycortical stimulationglioma surgeryphotograph
Awake Craniotomy
Figure 5: Kaplan-Meier curve of survival for elderly patients (65 years) with highgrade gliomas (HGG) who underwent awake-craniotomy gross tumour resection (GTR) compared to subtotal resection (STR) or biopsy. Median survival was significantly longer for patients with HGG who underwent GTR compared to those who underwent STR or biopsy (10.8 vs 7.8 months, respectively; p = 0.039) [39].

Keywords: awake craniotomydiagramglioma surgeryKaplan-Meiersurvival distribution
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