The Pill at 50 (in Germany): Thriving or Surviving?
Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie - Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Endocrinology 2011; 8 (Sonderheft 1): 14-31
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Keywords: Ludwig Haberlandt, chemistry, Levonorgestrel, norethindrone, norethynodrel, oral contraceptives
This article describes in detail the history behind the chemical development of oral contraceptives, notably the synthesis of norethindrone, which represents the chemical template from which virtually all subsequent oral contraceptives are derived. Attention is also paid to the introduction of the most recent oral contraceptives in Germany and reasons are provided for the dim overall prognosis about the future of contraception, namely that nothing fundamentally new is on the horizon.