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Uckermann O et al.  
Optical Biochemical Imaging: Potential New Applications in Neuro-Oncology

European Association of NeuroOncology Magazine 2014; 4 (1): 20-26

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Fig. 1: Vibrational Spectroscopy Fig. 2A-D: FT-IR imaging Fig. 3: CARS image Fig. 4a-f: Multimodal NLO Fig. 5a-c: NLO imaging

Keywords: brain tumourcoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS)intraoperative imagingvibrational spectroscopy

For the surgical treatment of malignant gliomas and adjustment of adjuvant therapies it is crucial to characterize the tumour as precisely as possible. This includes the determination of the exact tumour location as well as the analysis of its properties in order to define an accurate diagnosis as early as possible in the treatment process. New, purely optical, non-invasive techniques allow for the label-free analysis of tissue and are promising for neurosurgical applications. These techniques may be helpful for neuropathology and have the potential to be used for intraoperative in situ diagnosis of suspicious areas without the need for removal biopsies. The ability of linear (Fourier-transform infrared, Raman [FT-IR], Raman), and non-linear (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering [CARS], surface-enhanced Raman scattering [SERS]), optical, vibrational spectroscopy, also in combination with multiphoton technologies (second harmonic generation [SHG], two photon-excited fluorescence [TPEF]), to characterize brain tumours has already been shown in animal models of experimental glioma and on different human brain tumour entities. Based on biochemical composition, glioma tumours can be identified and characterized, the borders towards normal brain tissue and infiltrative areas can be discerned with cellular resolution and morphological details help to identify functional fibre tracts. Label-free, optical biochemical imaging technologies can provide clinically relevant information and need to be further exploited to develop a safe and easy-touse technology for intraoperative in situ diagnosis of malignant glioma.
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